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Hard animal materials industry in the Gumelnița tell-settlement of Pietrele - re-evaluation of the old archaeological collections (Authors: Monica Mărgărit, Meda Toderaș), Materiale și Cercetări Arheologice XV (SN) 2019 (BDI journal), p. 61-80 - Personal adornment in the Prehistory of the Northern Danube territory: aesthetic or socio-cultural symbol?

Tell-settlement of Pietrele is a landmark for knowledge of the Gumelnița communities north of the Danube. Archaeological research began in 1943 under the direction of D. Berciu. He published a synthesis report of the findings but it was just a quantitative enumeration without a description of the technological and use-wear marks on the pieces made of hard animal materials. Consequently, we tried to identify how many of the archaeological pieces from the old excavations are still present in the collection and then to present another type of analysis on which to draw conclusions related to the economic and spiritual characteristics of the Gumelnița community of Pietrele. Within the archaeological assemblage, the personal adornments are well represented. There are belt elements, bracelets and beads made from Spondylus valve; beads made from Unio valve and perforated shells of gastropods. At first, I tried to identify the raw materials from which the pieces were made. In a second stage, typological categories were established. For each of these, the operational scheme was reconstituted and then the possible use-wear marks were identified, which could indicate how the artifacts were used.