Scientific report 2016

regarding the project implementation in the period January – December 2016

 

Starting from the problematic aimed in this project, correlated with the period when the project was implemented (January – December 2016), the specific objectives were structured thus:

First objective of the project was the accomplishment of the field research, of the lab research and of the experimental interdisciplinary research, with the purpose of obtaining a maximum of information regarding the analyzed subject. The field research aimed the some working travels in the area of the Iron Gates, where most of the Mesolithic sites from the Romanian territory concentrated. The area was mapped, in order to make estimations about the possibility of some subsequent archeological digging, considering that most of the ancient sites have disappeared, as a consequence of building the Iron Gates dam. Moreover, in June developed archaeological digging in the site from Schela Cladovei (Mehedinți county) – a referential site, because it is one of the only ones that offer a continuous inhabiting of human communities from the hunters-gatherers stage, to the agricultural stage (Mesolithic-early Neolithic), which might bring us many answers concerning the subject of our project. Returning to the actions involving the project implementation, in order to ease the access to the collections proposed for study, we initiated collaborations with “Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology from Bucharest, the National Museum of Romanian History and the Teleorman County Museum. In this period we also initiated the study of other collections of fauna remains and tools made of hard animal materials, in our own labs or by traveling to institutions of profile. There were evaluated, and the information will be disseminated, the following collections: Mesolithic – Climente II, Cuina Turcului, Ostrovul Corbului, Pescari-Alibeg, Răzvata, Schela Cladovei (Mehedinți County), and for Neolithic – Cuina Turcului (Mehedinți County), Măgura-Buduiasca (Teleorman County), Șoimuș (Hunedoara County). In parallel, we also aimed to implement the concept of experimental interdisciplinary archaeology, with the purpose of identifying the technological and functional aspects concerning the manufacturing and use of tools made of hard animal materials. This activity had the purpose to demonstrate the efficiency of experimental archaeology within the interpretative process and the understanding of the technological and traseological chain applied by the Prehistoric communities. The objective was put to practice by organizing an experimental workshop in the project’s host institution. The experimental protocol that we designed and put to practice included, as a first stage, the elaboration of a descriptive chart which to grasp all the stages of the operational chain, with the registering of the used raw materials, of the timed taken by each type of operation, of the tools we worked with, and the results obtained for each operation (macro-technological traces). The experimental program was modeled both according to the aimed objectives – the types of prehistoric tools that we desired to replicate, and the raw materials we had access to. All the stages of the operational chain were also photo registered and later on, in the host-institution – Valahia University of Târgoviște, all the technological macro and micro-traces were studied and photographed at the microscope, thus creating a photo database, at which we added the reference collection, which starts to take shape and which will be extremely useful for the comparative studies with archaeological artifacts. As demonstrated afterwards, the demarche implies an important investment of time, which might be the reason why the researchers were discouraged (the lack of spectacular results on short term) and why we are, in this particular moment, still in a pioneering stage at the level of experimental archaeology in Romania.

The second objective of the year 2016 aimed the perfecting of working instruments, by introducing and developing a new method for the pluri- and interdisciplinary archaeological research in Romania. This objective has an organizational and theoretical character, its results being visible on long term. The activities proposed for this objective aimed to accomplish the preliminary instruments and database, which will quantify the gathered data. For this purpose, a standard analyze chart was constructed – both for the fauna remains, and for the artifacts made on hard animal materials. Each chart will receive a series within a database which we hope it will become a useful instrument not only for the team members, but also for other specialists of the period considered in our project. In the same time we continued to complete a bibliographic database regarding the exploitation methods of animal environment by the Mesolithic and Neolithic communities in Western Europe and to correlate them with the available data for south-eastern Europe. For this purpose, we established an unitary registering system of all types of information/data and was created a database for information management and use. Up until now there were inventoried no less than 1.000 titles, concerning both the considered theme – the exploitation of animal environment, but also connected themes, which to allow correlations between regions or between different types of artifacts. We would like to accomplish the chronological correlation of the existing data, based on dating, regarding some specific archaeological vestiges (fauna remains, the hard animal materials industry), in order to see, in the end, whether we may speak about local adaptations reflected in the exploitation of animal environment and implicitly about the existence of some ecological niches, at the level of the European continent.

The dissemination of the research, by Valorizing and disseminating the results obtained in the project, at the end of this stage – represented the last objective of the IInd year (2016). We managed to attain a very important objective of the project, namely the organization of an International Meeting, on the theme of the project, which to allow, on the one hand, the dissemination of the results of our project, and on the other, the evaluation of the attained scientific level, compared to international research. As a consequence, in the period 31 August – 4 September 2016, at the University of Vilnius (Lithuania), was organized, within the 22nd Annual Meeting of European Association of Archaeologists, the session EXPLOITATION STRATEGIES OF THE ANIMAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE LAST HUNTER-GATHERERS AND FIRST FARMERS IN EUROPE. The profound climatic changes and the need to identify solutions for the survival of mankind represent major topics of debate in contemporary society. Throughout their 200,000-year history modern humans have been faced with climatic changes some of them radical, which had a significant impact on the strategies employed for the exploitation and management of the environment, especially the animal life, and were reflected in the types of economic practices. Therefore, to understand this complex phenomenon, it is necessary to quantify and compare its effects, to be able to provide an integrated view of the ways in which the animal environment was exploited by prehistoric communities at the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer-stockbreeder, identifying and comparing different eco-cultural models developed across Europe. The priority domains are: biodiversity evolution and correlative human societal transformations, especially in animal management and techniques of exploitation (bone manufacturing). Equally, it can identify the modifications that intervened in the relation between the exploitation of the animal environment and the way in which it was reflected in palaeo-economy, habitat, social or spiritual organization. Our session has the great advantage to integrate the presentations covering the entire continent, from Spain until Russia, making ourselves known various ecological niches what characterized the developments in Europe for Mesolithic and Neolithic. This 2016 EAA session offered an opportunity to introduce in the European archaeological community of less known information from Eastern Europe. The half-day devoted to the ‘Exploitation strategies of the animal environment’ session allowed us to select ten papers focused on the animals exploitation, in the context of the emergence of the domestication phenomenon, hunting and fishing strategies, processing of various raw materials for technological purposes  etc. Researchers that participated in the session come from educational and research institutions from Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, Croatia, Serbia, Romania and Russian Federation. The sequence of presentations has been fixed by chronological criteria, starting from the earliest period – Mesolithic and less on geographical criteria. For details, you may consult the reunion program, along with the abstracts of the communications (http://eaavilnius2016.lt/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ Programme_Layout_08-29.pdf).

Team project had two presentations within this session:

Mesolithic boar tusk processing in the Iron Gates: a typological and experimental approach (Authors: M. Mărgărit, A. Boroneanț, C. Bonsall). The Mesolithic settlements in the Iron Gates have yielded rich assemblages of modified Sus scrofa canines, exemplified here by the site of Icoana (Romania). This raw material seems to represent, for Eastern European, a hallmark of Mesolithic. Indeed, during the Neolithic, the number of pieces made of Sus scrofa canines decreased constantly, becoming sporadic during the Chalcolithic. The typological categories identified are scrapers, bevelled tools, combination tools and adornments. Debitage remains are also present, indicating on-site tusk processing. Boar tusk was readily available from the animals that were killed, and analysis of the faunal remains indentified a large number of boar bones within the mammalian asssemblage. Our study aimed to identify the transformation pattern both of the tooth and the functional marks, which could offer clues to the way in which the pieces were used. An experimental study was conducted, aimed both at the identification of transformational patterns of the tooth, and the presence of wear marks as possible functional indicators. The results of our experimental programme suggest wood processing as the main activity performed with boar tusk tools.

– The second presentations told about: Icoana revisited: an archaeozoological perspective (Authors: M. Prociuc, V. Radu, A. Boroneanț, C. Bonsall, A. Bălășescu). The first study of the archaeozoological remains from Icoana was made 40 years ago by Alexandra Bolomey. The importance of this settlement led us to re-examine all the faunal material using methods such as slaughtering curves, ageing and sexing, biometry, cut marks, butchery patterns and palaeogenetics. This has resulted in a new interpretation of the local fauna and of Mesolithic hunting activities. All the remains are interpreted as food refuse, with high fragmentation ratios. The list of taxa identified includes molluscs (1 species), fishes (1), reptiles (1) and mammals (16). The assemblage is dominated (93.5%) by wild mammals, with over 4300 identifiable specimens. Sus scrofa (wild boar) dominates, followed by Cervus elaphus (red deer) and Capreolus capreolus (roe deer). By weight, deer remains are the most important, followed by wild boar. Other taxa represented are Rupicapra rupicapra (chamois), Bos/Bison (aurochs/bison), Ursus arctos (brown bear), Canis lupus (wolf), Vulpes vulpes (red fox), Meles meles (European badger), Lutra lutra (European otter), Martes sp. (marten), Felis silvestris (wildcat), Lynx lynx (lynx), Castor fiber (European beaver), Lepus europaeus (European hare). The dog (Canis familiaris) is the only domestic mammal present in the site. Cut marks identified on the bones show that dog contributed to the food supply, which was also observed in the Mesolithic levels at Lepenski Vir, Vlasac and Padina.

The dissemination of the project’s results was also made by the participation to other national and international scientific reunions:

At the Session of ”Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology, Romanian Academy, METODĂ, TEORIE ŞI PRACTICĂ ÎN ARHEOLOGIA CONTEMPORANĂ. IN MEMORIAM ALEXANDRU VULPE” (30 March-1 April 2016) we presented two communications. The first one had the title Adornments devoted to funerary cult? The funeral inventory analysis from a Mesolithic grave of Schela Cladovei (Mehedinți county) (Authors: M. Mărgărit, V. Radu, A. Boroneanț, C. Bonsall). The Mesolithic site from Schela Cladovei (Mehedinți County) is one of the few sites which were not completely covered with waters, following the construction of the Iron Gates I and II dams and the appearance of the two barrier lakes. The site is also well-known for the approx. 100 Mesolithic inhumation graves, some of them with very rich funerary inventories. The purpose of this case study is the analysis of Mesolithic inhumation graves, some of them with rich funerary inventories. The purpose of this study is the analysis of the inventory deriving from the grave no. 38, namely with the purpose of identifying whether the pieces were created especially with the purpose of being deposed in tomb, or they were used previously to this moment. Statistically, we are dealing with 324 fish pharingeal teeth (Rutilus sp.), 121 shells of Lithoglyphus sp. and 4 shells of Cyclope sp. While the fish teeth were only detached from the anatomic blank, without suffering further interventions of technological nature, using, for clasping, their natural form, the shells of Lithoglyphus were perforated and clasped in composite adornments and those of Cyclope sp. known a procedure of eliminating the walls of the loops and apex, by pressure, being sawn individually. Most of the adornments present wearing, demonstrating a utilization previously to the deposition into grave. Moreover, there can be identified different wearing degrees which might illustrate a replace of the broken or lost pieces, with new ones. In conclusion, we are not speaking of a funerary furniture stricto-senso, the funerary deposition being only a stage in the ”life” of these adornments. The second presentation aimed Mesolithic fauna of Icoana. An archaeozoological revaluation after 40 years (Authors: M. Prociuc, V. Radu, A. Boroneanț, C. Bonsall, A. Bălășescu). The early Mesolithic and Neolithic sites from the Iron Gates were discovered following the construction of the two dams. Out of the 17 sites identified initially, in this moment archaeological researches can unfold at Vlasac (Serbia) and Schela Cladovei (Romania), the rest being covered by the Danube. The presentation has focused on the Mesolithic fauna from the site of Icoana. For Icoana, there are 25 radiocarbon data: 17 on boar bone, 5 on red deer bone and 2 on human bone, indicating two inhabiting periods within the site, seemingly both on short term. The archeozoological studies have led to the following conclusions: 1) The dog is surely eaten! Proof are the traces of disjointing, disarticulation, descarnation and burning identified on bones; 2) The deer and the boar were the most hunted animals here, being followed by the daim; 3) The repartition of the wastes of anatomic elements of the species identified in this site allowed the observation of the fact that the hunted animals were brought integrally in the site, where they were disjointed and consumed by the Mesolithic community; 4) Some anthropic traces observed on the surface of the bones led to the accomplishing of some animal disjointing schemes; 5) The comparison with other Mesolithic sites in the area show that the site from Icoana has an unique position by the extremely important contribution of the boar at the paleo-economy of this community; 6) At the paleoeconomy of the site have also contributed mollusks, fish and turtles.

At the international meeting: The archaeology of wetlands, the landscape, the man and his environment: Danube Valley in Prehistory (National Museum of Romanian History, București, 15-16 june 2016), the team project was present with: Archaeofauna from Icoana settlement and the paleoenvironment image (Authors: M. Prociuc, A. Bălășescu, V. Radu, A. Boroneanț; C. Bonsall). Icoana settlement was located at the exit of Danube from Cazanele Mici, about 700 m from the flowing river Mraconia into the Danube and Mesolithic site Razvrata. There were identified two periods of habitation in the site, both apparently short. The first one, during the  Late Mesolithic, at about 8050 cal BC and the second one, in the transition period from Mesolithic to  Early Neolithic, about 6100 cal BC. They were performed over 6,000 faunal remnants of which 99% belong to mammals. Other classes captured in the sample are mollusks, fish and reptiles. Mraconia river created a great biotope for wild boar specimens, but also prosper conditions for Icoana site development. Bringing together all information about faunal data and pollen, we tried to reconstruct the paleoenvironment so we can claim that Icoana nearby areas were more swampy that nowadays, surrounded by coniferous forests.

At the  11th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group Meeting, 23-28 may 2016, Iaşi, three communications have been presented:

– The exploitation of the aquatic resources for the adornments and tools manufacturing in the Neolithic settlement from Măgura ”Buduiasca” (”Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) (Authors: M. Mărgărit, P. Mirea, V. Radu). The settlement from Măgura “Buduiasca” (“Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) (Teleorman County) has an important place among the Prehistoric settlements from the Romanian territory because, having a continuous inhabiting since early Neolithic, until early Chalcolithic, it allows us to sketch the evolution (permanencies and mutations) of the utilitarian pieces and personal adornments regarding the selected raw materials and the patterns of their transformation. A first example is that of the local bivalves (Unio sp.), which were exploited in an opportunistic manner: in the first stage an important source of food and secondary, as a source for producing beads and utilitarian pieces, by recovering valves from domestic wastes. Another category of raw materials is that of the local gastropods shells, which don’t have a nutritional value (Lithoglyphus sp., Theodoxus danubialis, Esperiana sp., Ansius/Planorbis). In this case we may invoke the organization of specialized expeditions, in certain periods of the year (in accordance with the specie’s availability), with the purpose of gathering shells. A third category is that of the imported elements which, most likely, got to the studied community in an already finished form. They demonstrate the complex exchange networks, developed on this chronological stage. Thus, species like Mytilus or Cardium, may derive from Black Sea, while Spondylus, Glycymeris, Ostreea or the coral have their origins in the Mediterranean Sea. In order to have a complete picture, we need comparative studies with other contemporary or successive assemblages, based on which to be able to identify the processes of innovation and the cultural continuity, in time and space.

Exploitation of Cervus elaphus antler during the Mesolithic in the Iron Gates: A comparison between the sites of Icoana and Ostrovul Corbului (Authors: M. Mărgărit, A. Boroneanț, C. Bonsall). According to the radiocarbon data, both Icoana and Ostrovul Corbului (Mehedinți County) were inhabited during the Late Mesolithic (ca. 7200-6300 cal BC). Both sites yielded significant numbers of artefacts made of Cervus elaphus antler. The purpose of this study is to establish, by comparison, if a unitary Mesolithic châine opératoire exists, or there are features characteristic of each site. On the one hand, a common element for both sites is the predilection for the volume exploitation of blanks, and very few examples of longitudinal debitage. The typological repertoire is also quite similar: bevelled objects are predominant, reflecting a specialization in certain activities, such as wood processing. Moreover, products and sub-products of the châine opératoire were identified, suggesting in situ manufacture of the finished products. On the other hand, the exploitation both of unshed and shed antler is characteristic of the Ostrovul Corbului site suggesting two raw material acquisition strategies: both hunting and raw material gathering expeditions. At Icoana, the absolute lack on the antler’s basal areas does not allow for suppositions regarding the manner of raw material acquisition. In this case, the question is if the antler was somehow segmented outside the site and only the segments that were to be transformed into tools were brought in. Therefore, in spite of the overall unitary picture, we can also identify elements that were specific to each site and for which we cannot determine whether they were generated by economic or cultural factors.

 – Processing the carapace from spur-tighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in Prehistory. Case studies from Romania and Armenia (8-5th millennium BC) (Authors: V. Radu, M. Mărgărit, V. Voinea, K. Martirsoyan-Olshansky, R. Badalyan, A. Boroneanț). The spur-thighed tortoise is a widespread reptile in the Eurasian area, especially in the steppe climate areas. The presence of shell remains and other anatomic elements among the household waste confirms that the spur-thighed tortoise was consumed as food in Prehistory. Taking advantage of the natural shape of its carapace, prehistoric humans used it as a container for various products and not only. The presented study was developed on carapace remains presenting both processing and use-wear traces. These originate from the Mesolithic site at Icoana (Romania), from a context dated probably to the 8th millennium BC, the Neolithic sites Masis Blur and Aknashen (Armenia) dated to the 6th millennium BC, and Eneolitihic site Cheia from beginning of the 5th millennium BC (Romania). The present study aims to reconstruct the transformational stages from the natural shell to the final product. It has been noticed that, sometimes, the final objects differ between the two regions. In Romania, the carapace processing involved the removal of the plastron and, in the case of Cheia, of all peripheral plates but the anterior one. All peripheral plates were present on most objects from Armenia. The technological intervention was minimal and consists only in cutting off the unnecessary parts and, sometimes, in polishing the debitage side. Various types of residues and, substantial use-wear were noticed on the inner surfaces of the carapace as a result of its use as utilitarian object.

At first Congresul Național al Istoricilor Români, Cluj-Napoca, 25-28 august 2016, we talked about: Can the processed bones cultural index? The example of Măgura ”Buduiasca” (”Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) neolithic settlement (Authors: M. Mărgărit, P. Mirea, A. Bălășescu). This study proposes to identify changes in the processing of osseous materials in the southeastern European Neolithic, beginning with three cases of production by manufacture wear technique (bipartition by abrasion, segmentation with fiber and perforation by wear technique). The processing of osseous materials is strongly conditioned by their natural anatomic shape which is why a limited array of possible transformation variables would be expected with minimum changes through time. Still, these three types of bone manufacturing techniques are not found throughout the prehistory of this region. Some of these techniques appear on worked osseous materials in Romania and neighboring areas at the beginning of Neolithic and disappear just as suddenly (bipartition by abrasion and perforation) or appear only sporadically (segmentation with fiber) by the Early Chalcolithic. Based on experimental reconstructions of the three processing techniques and comparing them with the archaeological assemblages, the study identifies some of the reasons the techniques appear and why they are abandoned afterwards, the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques compared to other transformation schemes and whether they represented some kind of real innovation in the way osseous materials are processed.

At the XVI International Scientific Session: CULTURĂ ŞI CIVILIZAŢIE LA DUNĂREA DE JOS.  ORIENT ŞI OCCIDENT. In Honorem Silvia Marinescu–Bîlcu, which took place at Călărași County Museum, in the period 28-30 September 2016, was presented the communication: Pigs in the Iron Gates Mesolithic: recent research issues and interpretations (Authors: A. Boroneant, C. Bonsall, M. Mărgărit, M. Prociuc, A. Bălășescu). The area of the Iron Gates contains one of the densest gatherings of early Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in Europe, the archaeological sites being distributed both on the Romanian and the Serbian banks of Danube. There are known over 60 archaeological sites and almost all have offered an important number fauna remains, both in funerary and non-funerary contexts. The presentation has as subject the analysis and interpretation of the significant percentage of remains of Sus scrofa from these sites (taking as study case the site from Icoana). The boar is one of the most spread terrestrial mammals, being extremely adaptable at very different environment, preferring nevertheless the broadleaf forest. Generally it is vegetarian, but from the diet there are also part also small animals, eggs and insects. When necessary, they eat the pray remains abandoned by other animals and they also hunt animals bigger than them. We also discussed the impact that the wild boar had in everyday life of the Prehistoric communities and the possibility of the existence of a possible freshwater reservoir effect for the data 14C made on boar bones.

Finally, at the symposium Arheovest. Interdisciplinaritate în Arheologie și Istorie, which took place at Timişoara, on 26 November 2016, the team of the project contributed with the following presentation: Rapid climate changes and the temporal distribution of the Iron Gates radiocarbon data in the first part of the Holocene (Authors: A. Boroneanț, C. Bonsall). There are more and more data about the climatic variability during the Holocene, especially of some quick cooling episodes (RCC), with a cycle of approx. 1450 calendar years, among which the most recent was the short glacial period (Little Ice Age) from the medieval period. There were identified six such periods, as follows: 9000–8000, 6000–5000, 4200–3800, 3500–2500, 1200–1000, and 600–150 cal BP. Their identification was made comparing approx. 50 series of paleoclimatic registrations all over the globe. For the Iron Gates area, it is relevant only one of the six previously mentioned, namely that from 8600–8000 calBP, the others exceeding the chronological interval of interest for this paper. This RCC, also known as 8.2 ka event, had probably a significant impact over the neolithization process in the Balkans. Considering a relatively important number of radiocarbon data (350 at the date of the presentations) for the period of end Pleistocene-beginning Holocene, the area of the Iron Gates is a good choice for such a study. It was observed a close correlation between the series SCPD of the radiocarbon data and the main registered climatic events. On the one side, a climatic cooling is not reflected only in the dropping of temperatures and the modification of the pluvial system. The indirect causes (also connected to the climatic factor), with an impact upon the human populations from the Iron Gates, could be diverse (fluctuations of the fish resources, changes in the social system, modifications in the flooding frequency and magnitude along Danube Valley, various taphonomic processes) and they were analyzed in this presentation.

There were already published or are in the process of reviewing the following papers, especially based on the research’s results, presented in the international scientific reunions previously enumerated:

– Testing the endurance of prehistoric adornments: Raw materials from the aquatic environment (Author: M. Mărgărit), Journal of Archaeological Science (ISI journal), vol. 70, 2016, p. 66-81. Raw materials deriving from the aquatic environment were systematically used for personal ornamentation by modern humans throughout their entire history. In this study we analyse three types of raw materials: Lithoglyphus sp. shells, Unio sp. valves and Cyprinus carpio opercular bones. The central purpose of this paper is to initiate a database of the way in which wear develops according to the system of attachment and the longevity of use. In order to identify the costs invested in the manufacturing of these types of items, both from the point of view of time and effort, an experimental programme has been developed, which permits the recording of all the variables (means of gathering the raw material, technological stages, time recorded for each operation, and tools used). Furthermore, it was set the task of wearing the beads experimentally processed, as adornments, for two years, and of periodically evaluating the perforation and the surface of the pieces under a microscope. Moreover, observations made on archaeological specimens were compared to experimental replicas. The archaeological assemblages from the Romanian Neolithic were used as a case study to illustrate the relevance of the results.

Aquatic resources exploitation for processing of adornments and tools in the Neolithic settlement of Măgura ”Buduiasca” (”Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) (Romania) (Authors: M. Mărgărit, P. Mirea, V. Radu), Quaternary International (ISI journal) (in evaluation). The paper bases on the presentation sustained at the  11th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group Meeting, 23-28 may 2016, Iaşi.

The exploitation of animal resources in Șoimuș – La Avicola (Ferma 2) settlement (Romania) (Authors: M. Mărgărit, C.E. Ștefan, V. Dumitrașcu), Documenta Praehistorica (BDI journal) (accepted, editing process). The aim of this paper is to make known an extremely interesting archaeological assemblage, coming from the archaeological research carried out at the settlement of Șoimuș-La Avicola (Ferma 2) (Romania). The relevance of the study is also underlined by the fact that, until today, it is the only osseous assemblage published for Turdaș culture. It is numerically representative, with 901 pieces, among which 796 of bone, 94 of antler, 8 of tooth and 3 of valve. Within the bone pieces, our attention is drawn by the high standardization in the selection of the blanks, with a predominance of the Bos taurus ribs. In the same time, the techniques and procedures vary only a little within the groups, this fact allowing the identification of typological series. The recovery of all the products and sub-products resulted from the operational schemes of raw material transformation, and the analysis of the wear and technological traces, determined us to try to reconstruct a behavioral model concerning the modalities of raw material acquisition, the processing techniques and the activities developed with them, in other words the outlining of Șoimuș-La Avicola community’s economic and cultural features.

Technological exploitation of osseous materials in the Dudești level of Măgura ‘Buduiasca’ (‘Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș’), Teleorman county (Authors: M. Mărgărit, A. Bălășescu, P. Mirea), Buletinul Muzeului Județean Teleorman – seria Arheologice (BDI journal) (accepted, editing process). In the Măgura „Buduiasca” („Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) settlement, the first Neolithic inhabitants (Starčevo-Criș I) had settled in the ‘Bold’, and in a later stage of early Neolithic (Starčevo-Criș III) the inhabitance had extended henceforth to the entire ‘Buduiasca’ area where it also endured during middle Neolithic (Dudești and Vădastra). Among the studied archaeological levels, Dudești is representative for the hard animal materials industry. It has been processed in particular the bone coming mostly from domestic animals (Bos taurus, Ovis aries/Capra hircus) and less the Sus scrofa tooth and Cervidae antler. It is evident the correspondence between animal species exploited in the settlement and the blanks selected for the hard animal materials industry. The archaeological assemblage consists of 233 pieces, being present the four product and sub-product categories of the technological schemes of transformation. Typological, it is diversified but the finished products are subject to especially domestic and aesthetic scope, being absent the ones specific for the hunting activities. Dudești community processed in situ their toolkit, probably in an opportunistic manner, by recovering of blanks from the culinary wastes. The aim of this study is to reconstruct a behavioral model concerning the modalities of raw material acquisition, the processing techniques and the activities developed with them for, in the end, we are able to outlining an economic pattern of the Dudești community from Măgura „Buduiasca” („Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) (Teleorman county) settlement.

Faunal remains from the Early Neolithic layers of the Cuina Turcului rock shelter. Alexandra Bolomey in memoriam (Authors: A. Boroneanț, A. Bălășescu), MATERIALE ŞI CERCETĂRI ARHEOLOGICE (BDI journal), XII, 2016 (p. 27–44). The present paper originated in Alexandra Bolomey’s partial (and often incomplete) notes and unfinished manuscripts on the Early Neolithic faunal remains from the Cuina Turcului rock shelter. Most of the information they contained was never published, with the exception of some general data included in two papers that appeared in 1973. Little as it was, such information was often quoted by other scholars when dealing with Early Neolithic archaezoology, making the publication of the existing information even more urgent and important.

Moreover, starting with 1 November 2016, begun the process of gathering the papers for publishing, during the year 2017, of a volume subsumed to the project theme. Along with the 10 papers presented at the international reunion organized during the project (EXPLOITATION STRATEGIES OF THE ANIMAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE LAST HUNTER-GATHERERS AND FIRST FARMERS IN EUROPE), we send invitations to other specialists also, from the country and abroad, whose scientific preoccupations are connected to the last hunters-gatherers and the first agricultural men on the European continent.