By this project proposition, we shall try to analyse, quantify and compare the effects of a nearly “purely climatic” phenomenon and the effects of a mostly human-driven process and to provide an integrated image on the ways in which the animal environment was exploited by the prehistoric communities, at the transition from hunter-gatherers to farmers-breeders (7200 B.C. – 5000 B.C.), identifying and comparing different eco-cultural models developed in the northern Danube area (South of Romania). The investigations will cover two priority domains: of biodiversity evolution (e.g., taxonomic richness; magnitude of fauna turnover) and of correlative human societal transformations, especially in fauna management and techniques of exploitation. The project’s main goal is the construction of a syncretic and original theoretical and methodological apparatus, able to highlight, on different levels of interrogation and with adequate chronological frameworks, the way the animal environment was exploited by the communities in the Early Holocene and, at the same time, whether there were univocal answers to the stress exerted by the climate factors and the landscape changes or, on the contrary, there were numerous reactions which led to the appearance of the so-called eco-cultural niches. In order to reach this objective, the analysis will develop, in parallel, after three main axis: 1. Strategies of meat supply: substitution of species and their consequences for the passing of the communities from the stage of hunters-gatherers to that of farmers; 2. Strategies of osseous materials exploitation for making of artefacts: links or disconnection with hunting strategies and meat supply in both sequences (hunter-gatherers versus farmers); 3. Manipulation of living species during this transition: comparing and contrasting wild species/domestic species in northern Danube area. By documenting successively the evolution of faunas during the two moments, the exploitation of these changing faunas and some clues regarding their mental representations we hope to offer a comprehensive picture of the societal response to these contrasted perturbations. A second major objective is the introduction, in the international scientific circuit, of this methodological structure foreseen, based on unpublished archaeological information and valorizing the team members’ experience in applicative research. Last but not least, the present project proposes an educational objective. By coopting young researchers, doctoral (3 persons) and post-doctoral (2 persons) students in this project, and also by organizing conferences and workshops, we will try to promote the importance of this research field and the attraction of youth towards this research segment. Thus, it is intended supporting the main objectives covered by this competition: consolidating the critical mass of young researchers to be involved in interdisciplinary projects and to obtain their competitiveness on an international level and developing the leadership abilities of young researchers and their capacity to manage research projects. Considering that the project will take place in a superior educational institution, we consider that these objectives will be attained without any impediments.In order to attain the major objectives, according to the type of methodology applied, to the relevance and to the importance of the elements/issues pursued, continually looking for efficiency our specific goals are: 1) an exhaustive, critical reappraisal of the Romanian literature concerning the Early Holocene archaeological and paleoenvironmental record; 2) a full reassessment of several key archaeological collections assigned to the Mesolithic/Neolithic based on their quantitative relevance and the opportunity for inter-site regional comparisons; 3) chronometric sampling/ dating, in particular 14C; 4) field surveys in geographical areas directly connected to known archaeological sequences (e.g. Iron Gates, Olt Valley, Teleorman Valley), followed by survey excavations/sampling in new settlements; 5) integration of the regional archaeological records with paleoclimate reconstructions based on all climate proxies available; 6) final quantification of all the data gathered on the issues approached and formulation, analysis and verification of the final hypotheses with a view on: assessing fauna compositions and re-compositions evolutions; comparing the biodiversity evolutions triggered by the Holocene warming and by the Mesolithic and Neolithic revolution; assessing the impacts of climatic and societal forcing on the exploitation of faunas by north Danube societies; 7) annual publication of minimum three papers in indexed journals.