Exploitation strategies of the animal environment at the last hunter-gatherers and the first farmers north of the Danube (7.200-5.000 B.C.)

Abstract

The profound climatic changes and the need to identify solutions forthe survival of mankind represent major topics of debate in thecontemporary society. We must know that even since its beginnings, the modern mankind has been faced with climate changes some of them radical, which have left their mark on the strategies related tothe exploitation and the management of the environment, specifically the animal one, and have been reflected in the types of economic practices. By this project proposition, we shall try to analyse, quantifyand compare the effects of a nearly “purely climatic” phenomenon and the effects of a mostly human-driven ...
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Scientific context and motivation

By this project proposition, we shall try to analyse, quantify and compare the effects of a nearly “purely climatic” phenomenon and the effects of a mostly human-driven process and to provide an integrated image on the ways in which the animal environment was exploited by the prehistoric communities, at the transition from hunter-gatherers to farmers-breeders (7200 B.C. – 5000 B.C.), identifying and comparing different eco-cultural models developed in the northern Danube area (South of Romania). The investigations will cover two priority domains: of biodiversity evolution (e.g., taxonomic richness; magnitude of fauna turnover) and of correlative human societal transformations, especially in ...
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Project justification

The project is designed to fill in an important gap in the existing scientific knowledge on the research subjects proposed, and thus addresses a wide scientific audience. The estimated results will swiftly increase the visibility of the Romanian Holocene paleo-environmental and archaeological records, allowing for a direct correlation with the much more detailed data of Western Europe for the first time. The topics of the project are very complex, these kind of problems being only recently inquired in modern archaeological research at an international level (e.g., Boyd et al. 2011; Shennan 2011; Smith 2013 etc.). Moreover, as we have highlighted ...
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Methodology

The research methodology will be detailed, mentioning, as much as possible, some milestones. In the elaboration of this section the following aspects will be revealed: 1) Choosing the investigation methods and tools, by relating to the newest approaches in the field and also the way these will be integrated. At the level of the investigation methods, we intend to compare the indicators of evolution of the biodiversity established for the two sequences in order to address the following questions: (1) Were the taxonomic diversity changes induced by the climatic variations: in their magnitude, in their rhythm or in their nature ...
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Team of project

- Monica Mărgărit - project leader; - Adrian Bălăşescu - senior researcher - archeozoologist, specialization mammals; - Valentin Radu - senior researcher - archeoichtiologist and malacologist, specialization mollusks and fish; - Mircea Anghelinu - senior researcher - archeological background for the hunter-gatherers from the Romanian territory: - Loredana Niță - post-doctoral researcher - subsistence activities (hunting, food processing) reflected by the study of the lithic industries; - Adina Boroneanț - post-doctoral researcher - archeological background for the first farmers in the Romanian territory; - Mariana Prociuc - doctoral student - study of the animal bone materials (Mammalian class); - Ionuţ ...
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Objectives

By this project proposition, we shall try to analyse, quantify and compare the effects of a nearly “purely climatic” phenomenon and the effects of a mostly human-driven process and to provide an integrated image on the ways in which the animal environment was exploited by the prehistoric communities, at the transition from hunter-gatherers to farmers-breeders (7200 B.C. – 5000 B.C.), identifying and comparing different eco-cultural models developed in the northern Danube area (South of Romania). The investigations will cover two priority domains: of biodiversity evolution (e.g., taxonomic richness; magnitude of fauna turnover) and of correlative human societal transformations, especially in ...
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Scientific report for 2015

Scientific report regarding the project implementation in the period October - December 2015 The first objective - Organizing the activities and drafting the project development plan for the entire team - due to its exclusively organizational character, will not have quantifiable results in the near future, but they will reflect, in exchange, during the entire period of the project implementation. Thus, in the weekly reunions, with the entire team of the project, we identified the action strategies and we made a planning of the working program, for each of the team members. An important activity of this objective had in ...
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osteoarchaeology

Monica Mărgărit, Pavel Mirea, Adrian Bălășescu, Can the way bones are worked help reconfigure cultural identities? Three cases of ‘manufacture-by-wear’ technique, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (ISI journal) (in evaluation)

This paper proposes to identify changes in the processing of osseous materials in the southeastern European Neolithic, beginning with three cases of production by manufacture wear technique (bipartition by abrasion, segmentation with abrasive fibers and perforation by wear technique). The processing of osseous materials is strongly conditioned by their natural anatomic shape which is why a limited array of possible transformation variables would be expected with minimum changes through time. Still, these three types of bone manufacturing techniques are not found throughout the prehistory of this region. Some of these techniques appear on worked osseous materials in Romania and neighboring ...
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mjt

Monica Mărgărit, Adrian Bălășescu, Pavel Mirea, Technological exploitation of osseous materials in the Dudești level of Măgura „Buduiasca” („Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) (Teleorman county), Buletinul Muzeului Județean Teleorman – seria Arheologice (BDI journal) (in evaluation)

In the Măgura „Buduiasca” („Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș”) settlement, the first Neolithic inhabitants (Starčevo-Criș I) had settled in the ‘Bold’, and in a later stage of early Neolithic (Starčevo-Criș III) the inhabitance had extended henceforth to the entire ‘Buduiasca’ area where it also endured during middle Neolithic (Dudești and Vădastra). Among the studied archaeological levels, Dudești is representative for the hard animal materials industry. It has been processed in particular the bone coming mostly from domestic animals (Bos taurus, Ovis aries/Capra hircus) and less the Sus scrofa tooth and Cervidae antler. It is evident the correspondence between animal species exploited ...
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documenta

Monica Mărgărit, Cristian Eduard Ștefan, Valentin Dumitrașcu, Exploitation strategies of animal resources in the settlement from Șoimuș – La Avicola (Romania), Documenta Praehistorica (BDI journal) (accepted, editing process).

The aim of this paper is to make known an extremely interesting archaeological assemblage, coming from the archaeological research carried out at the settlement of Șoimuș-La Avicola (Ferma 2) (Romania). The relevance of the study is also underlined by the fact that, until today, it is the only osseous assemblage published for Turdaș culture. It is numerically representative, with 901 pieces, among which 796 of bone, 94 of antler, 8 of tooth and 3 of valve. Within the bone pieces, our attention is drawn by the high standardization in the selection of the blanks, with a predominance of the Bos ...
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harta

Adina Boroneanț, Adrian Bălășescu, Materialul faunistic din nivelurile neolitice timpurii din adăpostul sub stâncă de la Cuina Turcului. In Memoriam Alexandra Bolomey, MATERIALE ŞI CERCETĂRI ARHEOLOGICE (BDI journal), XII, 2016 (p. 27–44)

The present paper originated in Alexandra Bolomey’s partial (and often incomplete) notes and unfinished manuscripts on the Early Neolithic faunal remains from the Cuina Turcului rock shelter. Most of the information they contained was never published, with the exception of some general data included in two papers that appeared in 1973. Little as it was, such information was often quoted by other scholars when dealing with Early Neolithic archaezoology, making the publication of the existing information even more urgent and important ...
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jas

Monica Mărgărit, Testing the endurance of prehistoric adornments: Raw materials from the aquatic environment, Journal of Archaeological Science, vol 50, 2016 (p. 66-81)

Raw materials deriving from the aquatic environment were systematically used for personal ornamentation by modern humans throughout their entire history. In this study we analyse three types of raw materials: Lithoglyphus sp. shells, Unio sp. valves andCyprinus carpio opercular bones. The central purpose of this paper is to initiate a database of the way in which wear develops according to the system of attachment and the longevity of use. In order to identify the costs invested in the manufacturing of these types of items, both from the point of view of time and effort, an experimental programme has been developed, ...
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studii de preistorie

Monica Mărgărit, Camelia – Mirela Vintilă, New information from old collections. Reevaluation of personal adornments made of hard animal materials from the necropolis of Cernica, Studii de Preistorie, nr. 12, 2015 (BDI journal) (p. 81-115)

The study of the personal adornments category proves to be vital for the understanding of individual and of the means of treating the body, at Prehistory level. The purpose of this article is to reevaluate adornments made of hard animal materials, present in the Neolithic necropolis of Cernica. This was researched along a period of 13 years (1961-1974), benefiting also of an exhaustive monograph, which offered a general picture regarding the disposal of the tombs and of the funerary inventory from the necropolis, associated to each skeleton. In a first stage our study aimed to identify the raw materials from ...
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National RDI Plan 2007 – 2013
Human Resources Program
Subprogram: Research Projects to Stimulate the Establishment of Young Independent Research Teams – TE
Scientific Domain: Humanities
Project Number: 49/01.10.2015
Project Code: PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0519
Subdomain: The Study of the Human Past: Archaeology, History And Memory
Project Duration: 24 Months
Contracting Authority: Executive Unit for Financing Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI)
Host Institution: Valahia University of Târgoviște
Project Leader: PhD Monica Mărgărit
Budget: 550.000 Lei

Project leader: Monica Mărgărit
Valahia University of Targoviște
Adress: B-dul Regele Carol I, No. 2, Targoviște, Dambovița County
e-mail: monicamargarit@yahoo.com
e-mail: eneolithicbonetools@gmail.com